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1. Tropical red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii, better known in trade as Euchema cottonii is the most important source of k-carrageenan in the world and can be found cultivated in the coastal areas of Indonesia in substantial quantities. Based on data from Ministry of Fisheries and Marine, the production of seaweed in Indonesia continue to rise year by year. Total production of seaweed reach up to 16.2 million ton in 2018.
2. Fresh fish are highly perishable products due to their biological composition. Under normal refrigerated storage conditions, the shelf life of these products is limited by enzymatic and microbiological spoilage. Temperature and handling practices are the most important factors in determining the shelf life of fish. Maintaining a low and steady temperature through the entire cold chain is vital for the shelf life of valuable, fresh fish.
3. Carrageenan, a hydrocolloid, is an important material which has found applications in human food and the pet-food industry. It is used as a stabilizer, thickener, gelling agent and emulsifier. Carrageenan has the ability to form gels in a thermo-reversible way making it widely used as a gelling agent, thickener, and stabilizer in various industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, printing, and textile. Carrageenan is typically used as a stabilizer, thickener, gelling, emulsifying, binders and crystallization preventing in the food and beverage, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries.