Background Study 3.0 Pineapple Pyroligneous Acid (PPA)
Figure 3: A pile of pineapple wastage.
Ananas comosus or pineapple fruit is a member of Bromeliaceae family which is widely grown in tropical countries. According to Faostat online database, Malaysia is the 18th largest producer of pineapple in the world (334 400 tonnes production in 2012) with Johor as the largest contributor of pineapple production (Matthew et al., 2014). Normally, the leaves and stem of pineapple plant are discarded after harvesting of the fruit which resulted in huge amounts of pineapple plant waste biomass – which could lead to environmental problems. Thus, the pineapple plant biomass waste could be employed to condensation of pyrolytic vapours to produce pineapple pyroligneous acid (PPA). Pyroligneous acid (PA) or wood vinegar is defined as the smoky acidic liquid from plant biomass which obtained during pyrolysis processes (Souza et al., 2012). PA is a brownish yellow acidic liquid which contain complex mixture of phenolic compounds and sugars (Braz, 2012). Presence of the contents resulted in potential benefits of the PPA which includes application of antimicrobial agent; natural pesticides, which have potential to inhibit the growth of pathogen – ie. Xanthomonas compestris (Mmojije and Hornung, 2015) which is one of the major threat in rice cultivation.