Paundra Noorbaskoro Brawijaya U, Indonesia
The dependence of Indonesian societies on rice as a main food source becoming increasingly severe. Moreover, the average consumption of rice are +- 139 kg per capita today, will further weaken food security in this country of over 230 million inhabitants. If this trend continues, it will become a very serious problem for the people of Indonesia if its time national rice stocks decrease that may occur due to various factors including the rice farmland decreased the productivity. It is very possible happen if we see the condition of the global climate began to erratic lately due to the influence of global warming. Some regions in Indonesia that is the national granary began experiencing drought farm. One example is the hundreds of hectares of rice crops in the district of Tarik, Sidoarjo regency, which is one area of rice source in East Java, Indonesia, threatened crop failure. Because the rice grains contain lack of water intake. Hundreds of farmers spread over 20 villages in this district can’t do something for it , because of natural conditions that are less favorable to them. To save leftover rice crop to be harvested, they do join funds to purchase water pumps. This also occurs in various regions of agricultural lands which became other national granary. If it is left unchecked it will bring significantly harm impact to national food security. Though the source of carbohydrate that does not always have to rice, there are many other options. Therefore, the public should be able to get used to consume a carbohydrate source non-rice, marine and coastal sector is also one important area for the creation of global food security, which currently relies on agriculture. Discussions on food security, people always talk about increased production. I offered to lift the food diversification based management of coastal and marine potentials as other food sources that has not been getting maximum attention. With increasingly limited land used for housing, then the global food security will be shifted to food products from the coast and the sea. Indonesia as the largest archipelago country in the world has 17,508 islands with a coastline of 81,000 kilometers and has the potential of coastal and marine resources are very large (Bengen, 2002). Natural resources are found in coastal areas and the sea is composed of resources that can be recovered (renewable resources) such as fisheries, mangroves and coral reefs as well as resources that can not be recovered (non-renewable resources) such as oil and gas mineral and environmental services (Dahuri et al., 2001). Indonesia is one of the countries that have mangrove forests (mangroves) in the world, reaching 8.60 million hectares, although this is currently reported to be about half past five million hectares of forest had been damaged number (Gunarto, 2004). Mangrove ecosystems is one of coastal resources that have economic benefits, namely timber and non-timber, such as brackish water, shrimp farms, tourism and others. The ecological benefits are in the form of protection for the land and sea ecosystems, which can be a barrier to abrasion or erosion waves or strong winds. In ecosystems play a role in the stabilization of a coastal ecosystem, both physically and biologically (Bandaranayake, 2005). Brugueira ghymnorrhiza is one type of mangrove plant whose fruit can be used as a primary food source because it has good carbohydrate content. But not many people know about it, therefore BG'z TEAM (Brugueira ghymnorrhiza Team) conducted research on ghymnorrhiza Brugueira potential to be used as alternative food instead of rice flour production plant and conduct based Brugueira ghymnorrhiza as to diversify food products an alternative to rice. Species Bruguiera gymnorrhiza can be growth almost throughout the coast and estuaries in Indonesia, this plant tree throughout the year with a solid and up to 35 meters. At the age of 2 years have been productive of fruit. Growing up on the middle tier between Avicennia spp on the waterfront and Nypa fructicans which is closer to the mainland. Thrives on local rivers and estuaries along the muddy coast with low salinity and dry. The bark has a smooth surface to coarse, gray to blackish brown. Roots like laterally widened section of the base board. Has a number of roots of the knee. The leaves are green on top and yellowish-green layer on the bottom. With dark patches, lies opposite, elliptical leaves form a tapered tip. Fruit circular spiral elongated with a length between 13-30 cm (Sadana, 2007). Our team works to make efforts tekait feasibility study Brugueira ghymnorrhiza to be used as future food. As a new food source, we also analyze the content of tannin and HCN as an indicator of food security. Because tannin and HCN in certain doses can be toxic to humans. Lindur fruit has an average length of 27 cm with an average weight of 45 g. Results of chemical analysis of fruit lindur is 73 756% water content, fat content 1,246%, 1,128% protein, carbohydrate 23 528% and ash content of 0342%. While the anti-nutritional content of 6.8559 mg HCN and tannins of 34 105 mg. Boiling and soaking in addition to inactivate the enzyme can also reduce and eliminate toxins that exist in lindur fruit, among others, of a kind of tannin and HCN. With repeated immersion, fruit pulp lindur who originally turned into a dark brown light brown. HCN content after boiling for 0.72 mg, after soaking at 0504 mg. While the tannin content after boiling was 28.2 mg, after immersion of 25.37 mg. The ability to absorb water lindur fruit powder has a range of between 125% - 145%, this means to make 100 grams of flour dough that is smooth lindur fruit, water required approximately 126 ml to 145 ml. The ability to absorb this water shows how much water is needed by the flour to form a smooth dough. The water content of flour fruit lindur made with the direct method has a water content lower than the water content of fruits lindur flour processed by soaking the bleach solution. This happens due to immersion in a bleach solution causes the incoming water so that the water content at the beginning of drying is higher than those directly dried. Lindur fruit flour moisture content at the end of the drying of 11.6321% to 12.1761% flouring direct and immersion for flouring the bleach solution. The data show that the water content of the fruit powder has qualified lindur flour quality of the Ministry of Industry (SII), which is the maximum allowable water content of 14%. The average fat content of fruit flour lindur of 3.2116% to 3.0917% flouring direct and immersion for flouring the bleach solution. Usually the fat into the flour will affect the nature amilografinya. Fat will form a complex with amylose forming helical during starch gelatinization which causes the starch viscosity. The average results of the analysis of protein powder at 1,849% lindur fruit for direct flouring and 1.4270% for flour by immersion in a bleach solution. These results indicate lindur fruit protein content greater than the protein content of cassava flour and Febriyanti Wirakartakusumah research (1994), which ranged from 0.7 to 1.2%. Contained in the ash content of flour can be derived from the minerals contained in the fruit lindur. Ash content in flour lindur fruit average of 14014% for flouring direct and 2.6973% for flouring the use marinade bleach solution of sodium metabisulfite. Carbohydrates are the predominant amount as a constituent of the composition of the nutritional value of fruit flour lindur. The average value of carbohydrate content of 81.8904% to 80.3763% flouring directly and for flouring by immersion in a bleach solution. Carbohydrate flour mangrove fruit through a process of soaking in a bleach solution was slightly lower, it is because there are some carbohydrate in the form of starch vented along with the marinade solution. High levels of carbohydrates in the flour fruit lindur show this flour also has a high calorific value that can be used as an alternative source of new food based on local resources. For further research calorific value can be calculated by using a bomb calorimeter. Crude fiber content in fruits flour lindur average of 0.7371% to 0.7575% flouring directly and for flouring the bleach solution. These results have met the quality requirements of flour by SII, which amounted to 3%. Results of the analysis of tannin levels by an average of 25.2507 mg tannins for flouring directly, and 23.0167 mg tannins for flouring with bleach solution. These results are very safe for tannin content in foodstuffs as tannins ADI value of 560 mg / kg body weight / day. High levels of tannins that cause a bitter taste in the foodstuff. These compounds are carcinogenic if consumed in excess and continuous (Sofro et al., 1992). HCN is a compound that is most feared to be eaten. Because this compound in a dose of 0.5 to 3.5 mg / kg body weight can be lethal human. Because the body is able to interfere with the enzyme cytochrome-oxidase that stimulate inflammatory reaction in aerobic organisms. The average yield analysis HCN levels in fruit flour lindur at 31.68 ppm for flouring directly and 12.96 ppm for flouring by soaking with bleach solution. This result has been qualified quality standards HCN content in the flour, which amounted to 50 ppm. Statistical test results showed levels of HCN in the flour real difference between the two treatments. HCN content lindur fruit flour using lower because the bleach solution in the processing through a longer process that can reduce or eliminate HCN in foodstuffs. This is because HCN has a volatile nature, volatile at low temperature is 26 ° C, so that the compound is very easily removed through processing. HCN content in flour lindur fruit in a very safe limits for human consumption. From the research that has been done over the team showed that Brugueira ghymnorrhiza the potential to be used as a staple food of the future as an alternative to rice. And this will be used as alternative solutions to the global food security. Because Brugueira ghymnorrhizasangat to grow in various regions of the world especially in tropical regions such as Africa which often have problems related to food security, South America and Australia. In BG'z Our team consists of three core members, namely my own, Paundra Noorbaskoro (Brawijaya University Undergraduate Student Indonesia) as the team leader, Vian Dedi Pratama as Coordinator of Food Research (Undergraduate Student Brawijaya University in Indonesia) and Agustin Capriati (Master Student Programme Wageningen University Netherland) As coordinator Cultivation Brugueira ghymnorrhiza. In the implementation of our program cooperation also by empowering community groups Mangrove Wonorejo Surabaya, Indonesia, which consists of 10 people. The later development Brugueira ghymnorrhiza product can be used as a local product that we Wonorejo village Surabaya bombing. So it can also increase the income of local communities.
Our team would like to participate in this event in order to promote the innovation of our findings is Brugueira ghymnorrhiza as a raw material source of staple food of the future as an alternative to rice. It is based because of our concern about global food security, especially in areas experiencing hunger, of course this will be of particular concern in the future due to global food security generally correlate directly with climate change that today become the world's attention. And this innovative findings of our team is expected to be the anticipation as well as solutions if someday the global food crisis happen. It also could be a diversification of innovative products by using raw materials Brugueira ghymnorrhiza which have been less explored to serve as food staples.