On time, On Target
On 2050 the total population of the world is predicted to reach more than 9 billion people. Everyday one billion people go to bed hungry moreover malnourished and at the same time one billion other people wake up overfed. FAO has estimated about 795 million people out of 7.3 billion people were suffering from chronic undernourishment and that’s about one in nine people in the world. Almost all of those people, 780 million of them are living in developing countries. It is approximately 12.9% of the world population and it can be implied that one in eight people in developing countries are suffering from chronic undernourishment. Ironically, there are still 1.6 billion tonnes of food wastage every year and 1.3 billion of this amounts is the edible part of the total food waste (FAO 2013). It is moreover found that food waste also contribute to climate change occurrence. The average carbon footprint of food wastage is about 500 kg CO2 eq. per capita and per year. Asia have the highest per capita carbon footprint of food wastage approximately 700 to 900 kg CO2 eq. per capita and per year. The major contributors to the carbon footprint of food wastage are the common breakfast cereal main ingredients which is cereals that takes 34 percent of the total of carbon footprint. Potatoes and other roots in the other hand are particularly efficient in the cultivation, because of very high yield per unit area. Thus, emissions of GHG per kg of product are low. Contribution of lost and wasted starchy root including potatoes to the carbon footprint is quite low in all regions only less than 7 percent. Food wastage reduction especially on the high producing carbon footprint commodity would not only avoid pressure on scarce natural resources but also decrease the need to raise food production by 60 percent in order to meet the 2050 population demand (FAO 2013).
The utilization of food waste came from potato peel can be conducted by approaching the potato product industries, off farm products, and even the household industries like what Batata Dourada work with to make the prototype. The loss caused by potato processing are mainly caused by peels and ranging from 15-40% depending on the procedure applied (Schieber, Stinzing, & Carle, 2001).. Let’s take an example, average industrial potato processing produces 70-140 thousand tons of potato peels annually (Wu, 2016). Meanwhile the household industries that BD work with are regularly produce 50 kg of potato peels each day. With the number of mini french fries industries found around the campus. It can be estimated that the number of potato peels produced each day is reaching almost half of ton JUST in one campus area. From this number, it is clearly seen that it is huge potential to transform the potato peels into something more valuable instead of just being thrown away. Seeing the facts that FAO targets to reduce ⅓ of the total food waste by 2030, transforming potato peels into cereals is estimated to reduce up to 6,25% of the target.
Batata Dourada comes up with a solution, not only to utilize our food waste and encounter hunger, but also a nutritious food product for consumers who think that breakfast is an important part to start their day. So, we can say our product is targeted to general consumers. We are aiming this product to be an initial and practical choice for having a nutritious and healthy breakfast for individual and families alike. The transformation into cereal is considered due to the demand of breakfast cereals which increasing worldwide since the busy lifestyle of consumers forced them to find an alternative breakfast which are easy to prepare and nutritious at the same time. We know that US is the pioneer market for breakfast cereals, but it was forecasted that Asia Pacific is going to emerge as the fastest growing breakfast cereals market, ahead of North America and Europe where it is projected to account for around 13% of the overall market by 2019. Furthermore, the global breakfast cereal markets is anticipated to expand at CAGR of 4.10% during the period between 2013 and 2019 (Transparency Market Research, 2016). Cereals also known as a high durability food, which lead to enlarge the distribution range of the product itself. Cereal also one of the food that can be served with adjustable portion. This clearly aimed to reduce and prevent the habit of wasting food.
Potato peel is surprisingly contains valuable nutrients. Potato peels are good sources of phenolic compounds, glycoalkaloids, and cell wall polysaccharides which may be used as a natural antioxidants (Scheiber, Saldana, 2009). Glycoalkaloids are known toxic to microorganisms, viruses, and have anticarcinogenic effects against human cancer cells. Meanwhile, Phenolic compounds are an extremely heterogenous class of secondary plant metabolites which can be broadly classified as phenolic acids and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds help plants against biotic stress from animals, pathogens, and insects also from abiotic stress and also work as an antioxidant . Phenolic compounds which is present in potato peels are hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, non-anthocyanin flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, eriodictyol, naringenin, kaempferol glycosides, and quercetin glycosides), anthocyanins, and dihydro-caffeoyl polyamines. These compounds work as a radical scavenger and also transition metal-chelating materials. They act as a hydrogen or electron-donating agent which stabilize and delocalize the unpaired electron. The major phenolic compounds in potato peels are phenolic acids, chlorogenic acid to be precise It is also found that potato peel has high amount of dietary fibres which take role in controlling the blood glucose and cholesterol level. The process that potato peels undergoes before it is fully transform into cereal is not making a big change to the nutrients of it. It is indicated that the heating treatment did not cause any changes in phenolic acids content. There was also a study about some potato cooking methods such boiling, baking, and microwaving on phenolic compounds in five cultivars with different skin and flesh colors after six months of storage. The level of phenolic compounds was reduced by the three cooking methods but boiling minimized these losses (Perla et al, 2012) . It all leads us to not to be worried about the nutrient loss because of the process of the production.
Transforming potato peels into cereal has so many benefits in the near future. Implementing this kind of mechanism to potato based industries will not only helping them to manage the wastes they produced, but also making them the supporter of food waste reducer, reducing the food waste is another benefit of this, rather than just being physical pollution it still have chance to enter food processing line and have added values to it. The cereal also being nutritious naturally without being added any food additives or fortified, the cereals alone have a natural nutritional value and the process in fact does not destroy it, alas the benefits and its nutrition Batata Dourada will still be affordable to people because its source of raw materials are cheap. The other ingredients being used within the product also not very expensive and are easily accessible in the market, 1 portion of Batata Dourada which weight 30 grams with powdered milk will only cost the customer Rp. 4000-5000 (0.29-0.37$), as the big scale industries produced potato peels 70-140 thousand tons per day and annually by global numbers it will reach almost 100 million tons of potato peels that can further processed into Batata Dourada. It is by number of raw materials the production of Batata Dourada is feasible enough to be scale up into industrial level, although further study must conduct regarding the warehouse management of the raw materials.