Title RAISING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY AND REDUCING RISKS AND VULNERABILITY BY USE OF ROACH FEEDS
Cockroaches have been proposed [citation] as a high quality, efficient and sustainable alternative protein source for animals especially poultry and pig. Using cockroach as a protein source can contribute to global food security via feed or as a direct food source for humans.
The Dutch Ministry of EL&I initiated this study early 2012 in order to explore application of cockroach as a sustainable source of feed. This initiative identifies specifically the opportunities and limitations for use of cockroach in feed [citation].
In 2011, the world compound feed production was an estimated 870 million tones and the turnover of global commercial feed manufacturing generated an estimated annual turnover and sales value equivalent to US$350 billion worldwide (http://www.ifif.org/).
The UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) estimates that the world will have to produce more than 70% more food by 2050 due to the increasing population which is estimated to be 9.5 billion by 2050. Concerning animal protein production, the International Feed Industry Federation (IFIF) believes that the production of meat (poultry/swine/beef) will even double. This poses severe challenges to the global capacity to provide enough feed. Currently, important protein ingredients for animal feed are fish meal, processed animal proteins and soybean meal. However, in the European Union the use of processed animal proteins in animal feed is prohibited due to the TSE legislation. Globally land availability for soya cultivation is limited, while marine overexploitation has reduced the abundance of small pelagic forage fish from which fish meal and fish oil is derived. The growing scarcity of resources to produce these increasingly demanded ingredients has doubled prices during the last five years, while it already represents 60-70% of production costs.
So, alternative (animal) protein sources for livestock and aquaculture are urgently needed. Cockroach is such an alternative animal protein source, which can sustainably be reared by commercial and potentially for households in Uganda.
According to our preliminary laboratory work, Cockroach protein ranges between 30% and 70% on a dry matter basis. This range is determined by type of food they eat, species of cockroach and environmental factors. But by cockroach species, Americana Periplaneta has the highest protein on dry matter basis and it already thrives in Uganda to levels that it is a household pest. From our laboratory tests, we found out that the cockroach larvae and nymph stages have varying protein contents.
The protein content of the cockroach species is within the soybean/fish meal range and fat content is higher especially compared to (defatted) soybean meal.