My pre proporsal for INTEGRATED CHICKEN-FISH FARMING PROJECT
INTEGRATED CHICKEN-FISH FARMING PROJECT
In Tanzania, mostly in the regions living near the big water bodies and rivers, there has been a lot of overfishing in some parts of the rivers and lakes.
This is mostly done by people around and from outside Tanzania in an illegal especially in Mwanza Lake Victoria. Dar es Salaam is the highest populated region in Tanzania (approximately 5.29 million in 2016) and due to that there is much demand of daily food supply in all levels or standards of life. One of the highly demanded food in Dar es salaam is fish, a coastal region Dar es salaam is sided by Indian ocean which is the major supplier of saltwater fish such as tuna-like fish, octopus and prawns which are the mostly demanded for daily food.
Apart from saltwater fish Dar es Salaam has high demand in cold water fish specifically tilapia and Nile perch which are highly available in Lake Victoria in Mwanza Region. Dar es Salaam has been taken as a big consumer of these fish due to the population and economic status of the city but almost the whole Tanzania depends of Nile perch and Tilapia from Lake Victoria.
1.2 Problem statement and justification
1.2.1 Problem identification
Due to the burden of supplying fish to the whole country, the Lake Victoria ecosystems have been affected and the availability of these fish especially Tilapia has been very hard and very expensive in market when available. This is has been influenced by illegal fishers who fish without considering the fish bleeding sites.
1.2.2 Problem justification
Due to such problem in Tanzania especially in Lake Victoria, there is a need to find and encourage fish farming by providing support particularly seminars and finance to individual and fish farmers groups. Fish farming can reduce the Lake Victoria fish dependants and provide enough time for fish rebreeding and ecosystem balance after prolonged extraction. Dar es Salaam is a key region that must be put into fish farming due to their high fresh water fish demand level
1.3.1 Main objective
To construct a integrated chicken-fish farming within Dar es Salaam Region that will be producing local chicken and Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) weighing an average maximum of 5 Kg, within the same area
1.3.2 Specific objectives
I. To investigate all the fish nutrients needs and construct a self feeding aquatic-terrestrial ecosystem within my farm
II. To encourage and attract many Agriculture and agricultural engineers graduates to start this type of farming rather than waiting for governmental and nongovernmental employment.
III. To become a major supplier of fish in Tanzania and help the low income people to afford buying fresh water fish
IV. To employ my fellow youths who have not got a privilege to get formal education in all levels
2. Literature Review
Integrated chicken-fish farming is commonly and narrowly equated with the direct use of fresh livestock Manure in fish culture (Little and Edwards, 1999).
2.2 Potential linkages between chicken and fish production
The main potential linkages between livestock and fish production concern use of nutrients, particularly reuse of livestock manures for fish production. The term nutrients mainly refers to elements such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) which function as fertilizers to stimulate natural food webs rather than conventional livestock nutrition usage such as feed ingredients (Little and Edwards, 1999).
2.3 Sustainability issues at micro- and macro-levels
Sustainability may be considered at global, national, regional, community and household level and from a variety of perspectives. Sustainability as defined by an ecologist may be very different to that by an economist, but most can support the essence of that in the Brundtland report which incorporates social and economic as well as environmental concerns. Important questions relate to the role of integration of aquaculture with livestock to improve sustainability of food production in socially and economically advantageous ways while safeguarding or improving the environment. For this to occur, the roles of culture and institutions both have to be considered also since they are major forces for change or conservatism. A major issue is how integration, rather than specialization and separation, of livestock and fish production can enhance sustainability at all levels and perspectives (WCED, 1987).
Figure 1. The development of sustainable aquaculture systems involves consideration of production technology, social and economic aspects, and environmental aspects
3. Site, Materials and Methods
3.1.1 The land of 2025m2
3.1.2 Plentiful water supply of desirable quality:
The most important requirement in fish culture is water supply. Water, irrespective of its origin, can be used providing it is of desirable quality and available in quantity. However, if the water source is near some factory or mine sewage, water quality must be examined to see if its contents are harmful to fish. For example, the effluent from metallurgical factory contains lead; the one from instrument plant and table salt-electrolyzing plant contains mercury; the one from coking plant; petroleum and gas industry contains phenol. All these toxic materials can either kill fish directly or accumulate in fish body which smells and brings harm to people's health. In such a case, other fresh water sources should be considered. Underground water often contains excessive with lack of oxygen. Its temperature is too low for warm water fish. It should be completely exposed to the air before it's used. The underground water flowing out of coal mine or sulphur mine is too acidic to culture fish.
Water should be abundant with a stable level to meet the first-hand information on the variation of water level in different seasons. This is the principal consideration to design the area for fish pond. Water amount will influence the production potentials, so the relevant information as hydrology, meterology, topographical feature and edaphic quality should be collected and then, the calculation could be conducted in conjunction with water depth needed by per unit area fish pond based on the flowing amount of different seasons so as to ensure adequate water supply for fish ponds and fields as well. to establish a farm, thus, avoiding the draught through leakage in the dry season and the overflow in flooding seasons.
3.1.3 Soil quality
Different soil characters deeply affect the quality of the pond construction and influence the future fish yield to some extent and even the crop yield. Therefore, soil quality should be carefully differentiated and chosen. The soil for pond construction should ensure non-leakage and no collapse for dykes. This is the most important thing for manured pond. Loam is characterized by conservation of water and fertilizer with proper ventilation. Therefore, it is the best soil for the dyke construction. Sandy loam is also good for water conservation; however, it has a weak coagulation so it is poor for dyke construction. Clay is good for water conservation. It can be used as soil materials for pond bottom, but not good for dyke, because it cracks when dry. If these latter two soils are used for dykes, the dyke crown should be widened and the gradient of slope decreased. Grit soil, sand soil and silt soil are greatly porous, poor in water and fertilizer retention. They are not good materials for pond constructions. The sand, however, could replace part of clay for dyke construction. Apart from the consideration given to the soil quality which effects the construction, attention should also be paid to the soil contents, which influence the fish growth. If the iron contents are too much, ferric hydroxide will form colloid in water and will deposit on the pond bottom. This rosty sediment is often attached to fish hills hindering fish respiration especially, fish egg hatching, fry rearing. This type of soil appcars russet brown or green and is relatively easy to identify.
The soils with excessive decaying matter have lower water and fertilizer retention power. It is easy to collapse down if used as the material of pond dyke.In the tidal areas and swamps, the pond construction is more difficult to be carried out, because the ground water level is high. The operating cost may be much higher. These areas are too low to allow complete drainage as required for proper management. The temperature adjustment may be affected after being put into operation too. In determining soil quality, it is not enough to just examine the top soil. Enough samples have to be taken from various representative sports. The sampling depth should exceed the depth of the pond by one meter. There must be certain thickness of soil which has good water retention power to avoid serious leakage.
3.1.4 Overall Layout of an Integrated Fish Farm
In order to work out an overall program for a farm, land area elevation measurements should be carried out. Draw up an ichnography with a scale of 1:1000 - 1:500 before the earthwork calculation and the pond construction. The engagement items and their scale are determined by the natural conditions of a site, investment and consumers' preference. Then, the production departments can be determined. The overall layout of a farm means to make rational arrangement of each department and their affiliated equipment. It will not only involve the construction and investment but also the future operation. The reasonableness of the layout must be shown on the following:
I. The facilitates management and increases production and economic returns;
II. Every measure should be taken for easy operation, lessening labor intensity, heightening efficiency and protecting worker's health;
III. It economizes of capital construction investment and reduces material consumption and manpower.
The layout of integrated fish farm is not only for the present being but also for the future development and there should be room enough to realize a practical long-run program in stages according to the funds and labor force available. Other types of occupations in integrated fish farm serve fish production. The scale of crop and animal production depends upon the needs of aquaculture. Therefore, the locations and areas of various ponds should be considered first and then the location and areas of livestock pens, crop farming, processing industry and finally, the ones of other facilities.
3.2 Construction materials
• Woods and timbers for pen construction
• Excavation equipments for pond construction
• Polyethylene pond liners
• Barbed wire